Application Notes on Absolute Configuration
Determination of absolute configuration (AC) of chiral molecules is an important step in any field related to chirality but nowhere is it as critical as in the pharmaceutical industry. The phenomenon of “chiral recognition” − in which the enantiomers of a chiral drug may exhibit differences in biological activity or other processes such as distribution, uptake, and metabolism−makes it a necessity (or requirement) to know the AC not only of the final molecule but as early in the process of development as possible.
Application Notes on Secondary and High-Order Structure
Formulation of protein-based drugs often requires processes such as lyophilization or spray-drying. However, it has been shown that the freezing and drying steps involved in lyophilization could lead to protein unfolding. This unfolding of the native structure leads to an incomplete recovery of activity and results in aggregation and poor storage stability. These problems are often discerned through tedious and time-consuming measurements of activity or through detailed structure analysis. New and faster analytical techniques are needed in order to accelerate the development of protein formulation.